"A view of the city of Quebec, the capital of Canada ... = Vue de la ville du Québec, capitale du Canada ...." New York Public Library Digital Collections. Popular French-language contemporary writers include Louis Caron, Suzanne Jacob, Yves Beauchemin, and Gilles Archambault. By 1758 at the Battle of Carillon, the Flag of Carillon would become the basis of Quebec's desire to have its own flag. La province de Québec est la plus grande province canadienne : les deux autres provinces comparables au Québec sont l'Ontario et â¦  In June 2017 S&P rated Quebec as an AA- credit risk, surpassing Ontario for the first time. Mixed forests provide most of Canada's springtime maple syrup crop. , Inland waters are populated by small to large fresh water fish, such as the largemouth bass, the American pickerel, the walleye, the Acipenser oxyrinchus, the muskellunge, the Atlantic cod, the Arctic char, the brook trout, the Microgadus tomcod (tomcod), the Atlantic salmon, the rainbow trout, etc.. Émile Nelligan, a Quebec poet famous for his poem Winter evening, First influenced since the days of New France by Catholicism, with works from Frère Luc (Brother Luke) and more recently from Ozias Leduc and Guido Nincheri, art of Quebec has developed around the specific characteristics of its landscapes and cultural, historical, social and political representations..  The contribution of Quebec in science and technology represent approximately 1% of the researches worldwide since the 1980s to 2009. Learn more. The Labrador Peninsula is covered by the Laurentian Plateau (or Canadian Shield), dotted with mountains such as Otish Mountains. From La Bolduc in the 1920s–1930s to the contemporary artists, the music in Quebec has announced multiple songwriters and performers, pop singers and crooners, music groups and many more. Pending approval from the Superior Court of Québec (Commercial â¦  The research and development expenditures will be more than 3% of the province's GDP in 2013. The second attempt, the Charlottetown Accord of 1992, also failed to gain traction.  Several movie theatres across Quebec ensure the dissemination of Quebec cinema. Many of Québecâs founding families settled on Île dâOrléans and Côte de Beaupré. With its cinematic installations, such as the Cité du cinéma and Mel's studios, the city of Montreal is home to the filming of various productions. The southern portion of the shield extends to the Laurentians, a mountain range just north of the Saint Lawrence Lowland, that attracts local and international tourists to ski hills and lakeside resorts. The negotiations quickly reached a stand-still. Fiscal measures.  They established fur trading forts on the Great Lakes (Étienne Brûlé 1615), Hudson Bay (Radisson and Groseilliers 1659–60), Ohio River and Mississippi River (La Salle 1682), as well as the Saskatchewan River and Missouri River (de la Verendrye 1734–1738). Given the geology of the province and its different climates, there is an established number of large areas of vegetation in Quebec. Often known as Bill 101, it defined French as the only official language of Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction.. Because of the climate and available resources, it is only since the 1980s that these drinks can be produced in industrial quantities. While low and medium altitude peak from western Quebec to the far north, high altitudes mountains emerge in the Capitale-Nationale region to the extreme east, along its longitude. The island of Montreal houses most of the allophone and anglophone population, as well as most English-language institutions. Since the 1970s, languages other than French on commercial signs have been permitted only if French is given marked prominence. The Appalachian region of Quebec has a narrow strip of ancient mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec. , In ten years, Quebec had undergone a dramatic change. The Appalachians are actually a huge chain that extends from Alabama to Newfoundland. The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War. , Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the British legal system they were The traditional Quebecois cuisine descends from 16th century French cuisine, the fur trade and a history of hunting. They began construction of a series of fortifications to protect the area. The government of Quebec awards an order of merit called the National Order of Quebec. Until 1968, the Quebec legislature was bicameral, consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. This is a lower percentage than that of British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, and Manitoba but higher than that of the other five provinces. Quebec's cuisine has also been influenced by learning from First Nation, by English cuisine and by American cuisine. Algonquians organized into seven political entities lived nomadic lives based on hunting, gathering, and fishing in the rugged terrain of the Canadian Shield (James Bay Cree, Innu, Algonquins) and Appalachian Mountains (Mi'kmaq, Abenaki). , The all-time record of the greatest precipitation in winter was established in winter 2007–2008, with more than five metres of snow in the area of Quebec City, while the average amount received per winter is around three metres. The vast majority (90.5%) of Quebec's forests are publicly owned.  By some measures Quebec is the highest taxed province; a 2012 study indicated that "Quebec companies pay 26 per cent more in taxes than the Canadian average". The economy of Quebec represents 20.36% of the total GDP of Canada.  Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. Samuel de Champlain was part of a 1603 expedition from France that travelled into the St. Lawrence River. English is not designated an official language by Quebec law. The Ungava Peninsula is notably composed of D'Youville mountains, Puvirnituq mountains and Pingualuit crater. Although Quebec is home to only 24% of the population of Canada, the number of international adoptions in Quebec is the highest of all provinces of Canada. They appear to have been later supplanted by the Mohawk nation. , The government of Quebec has launched the Stratégie québécoise de la recherche et de l'innovation (SQRI) in 2007 which aims to promote development through research, science and technology. TPG bought a majority stake in 2015. Contributor Names Le Rouge, Georges-Louis. Many other substances are extracted including titanium, asbestos, silver, magnesium, nickel and many other metals and industrial minerals. These efforts by the colonial governors eventually resulted in enactment of the Quebec Act of 1774. , The Canadian Space Agency was established in Quebec due to its major role in this research field.  On November 27, 2006, the House of Commons passed a symbolic motion moved by Prime Minister Stephen Harper declaring "that this House recognize that the Québécois form a nation within a united Canada. In addition, Quebec has almost 12,000 bridges, tunnels, retaining walls, culverts and other structures such as the Quebec Bridge, the Laviolette Bridge and the Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge–Tunnel. Quebec's culture blends its historic roots with its aboriginal heritage and the contributions of recent immigrants, as well as receiving a strong influence from English-speaking North America. , Quebec ranks among the world leaders in the field of life science.  First Nations traded their furs for many French goods such as metal objects, guns, alcohol, and clothing. On September 13, 1759, the British forces of General James Wolfe defeated those of French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France.  In the 1976 election campaign, he softened his message by promising a referendum (plebiscite) on sovereignty-association rather than outright separation, by which Quebec would have independence in most government functions but share some other ones, such as a common currency, with Canada. , In 2011, 599,230 people (7.7 percent of the population) people in Quebec declared English to be their mother tongue, and 767,415 (9.8 percent) used it most often as their home language The English-speaking community or Anglophones are entitled to services in English in the areas of justice, health, and education; services in English are offered in municipalities in which more than half the residents have English as their mother tongue. The all time record high was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) and the all time record low was −51.0 °C (−59.8 °F). Only groups with 1.5 percent or more of respondents are shown.. One of the oldest cities in Canadaâhaving celebrated its 400th anniversary in 2008âQuebec city has a distinct old-world character and charm. Basically, this approach was designed with the intent of keeping French and English as far apart as possible. Lévesque insisted Quebec be able to veto any future constitutional amendments. , Quebec is considered as one of world leaders in fundamental scientific research, having produced ten Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry, or medicine. In a similar way, the Association of Film and Television in Quebec (APFTQ) promotes independent production in film and television.  It is generally a quite flat and exposed mountainous terrain interspersed with higher points such as the Laurentian Mountains in southern Quebec, the Otish Mountains in central Quebec and the Torngat Mountains near Ungava Bay. Given a warmer climate, the diversity of organisms is also higher, since there are about 850 plant species and 280 vertebrates species. In 2008, electricity ranked as the main form of energy used in Quebec (41.6%), followed by oil (38.2%) and natural gas (10.7%). When Great Britain declared war on August 4, 1914, Canada was automatically involved as a dominion. Therefore, after the separation of the Province of Quebec, Lower Canada and Upper Canada were formed, each with its own government.. Some livestock have the title of "Québec heritage breed", namely the Canadian horse, the Chantecler chicken and the Canadian cow. Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905).Only groups with more than 0.5 percent of respondents are shown. The cabarets radically transformed the artistic scene, greatly influencing the live entertainment industry of Quebec. Old Québec, a UNESCO World Heritage treasure, is walkable and safe. The province's economic output was CA$439.3 billion in 2018, almost 20 percent of the Canada's total gross domestic product. , At 1.69 children per woman, Quebec's 2011 fertility rate is above the Canada-wide rate of 1.61, and is higher than it was at the turn of the 21st century.  It also stands for the exploitation of its forest resources.  The climate of the province is largely determined by its latitude, maritime and elevation influences. Cities in Quebec. Other notable rivers include the Ashuapmushuan, Chaudière, Gatineau, Manicouagan, Ottawa, Richelieu, Rupert, Saguenay, Saint-François, and Saint-Maurice. The practice of sports and outdoor activities in Quebec was influenced largely by its geography and climate. This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 01:50. The rural part of the landscape is divided into narrow rectangular tracts of land that extend from the river and date back to settlement patterns in 17th century New France. The debate over the status of Quebec is a highly animated one to this day. Our team offers transactions using debt, equity or hybrid instruments, both as a direct investor and as a partner in investment funds. However, it is still below the replacement fertility rate of 2.1. However, initial French attempts at settling the region met with failure. During the campaign, Pierre Trudeau promised that a vote for the "no" side was a vote for reforming Canada. In 1629 there was the surrender of Quebec, without battle, to English privateers led by David Kirke during the Anglo-French War. The Quebec Act provided the people of Quebec their first Charter of Rights and paved the way to later official recognition of the French language and French culture. Pilon, Robert, Isabelle Lamoureux, and Gilles Turcotte (1991). CDPQ is a leading player in Québec. In 1758, the British mounted an attack on New France by sea and took the French fort at Louisbourg.  This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867.  Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water. The swelling numbers of English encouraged them to make greater demands for recognition with the colonial government.  Overall, the province of Quebec count about 125 scientific publications per 100,000 inhabitants in 2009. In the waters of the St. Lawrence there are eight deep-water ports for the transhipment of goods. There are also many successful plays from this literary category, such as Les Belles-sœurs and Broue (Brew). Forests cover more than half of Quebec's territory, for a total area of nearly 761,100 square kilometres (293,900 sq mi). An additional 5.8 percent of the population said they had no religious affiliation (including 5.6 percent who stated that they had no religion at all).Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,125,580), The official language of Quebec is French. From folk music to hip-hop, music has always played an important role in Quebercers culture. Located in the heart of downtown Québec City, a stoneâs throw from the Porte Saint-Jean, Le Capitole is the preferred destination for both businesspeople and tourists in search of a distinctive VIP experience.  However, only 40% of the mineral potential of Quebec is currently known. It is the only remaining walled city in North America north of Mexico and was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. Capitale-Nationale (French pronunciation: [kapital nɑsjɔnal]; English: National Capital region) is one of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec.  This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. Land speculators and settlers objected to the transfer of western lands previously claimed by the colonies to a non-representative government. Bergeron, Léandre and Pierre Landry (2008). Capital Gains and Losses IN-120-V This guide is intended for individuals (including trusts) who disposed of capital property (including incorporeal capital property) during their taxation year, or who are members of a partnership that disposed of such property during a fiscal period that ended during their taxation year. An unprepared British Army had to raise militia force; the rebel forces scored a victory in Saint-Denis but were soon defeated. In western Quebec, the average altitude is about 500 metres, while in the Gaspé Peninsula, the Appalachian peaks (especially the Chic-Choc) are among the highest in Quebec, exceeding 1000 metres. Quebec also produces a great number of high-quality wines including ice wine and ice cider. French settlers populating North America were interested in a new cuisine to confront the climate and the needs arising from the work of colonization. In 2003, 3886 cargo and 9.7 million tonnes of goods transited the Quebec portion of the St. Lawrence Seaway. The abundance of natural resources gives Quebec an advantageous position on the world market. A total of three Quebecers have been in space since the creation of the CSA: Marc Garneau, Julie Payette and Guy Laliberté. The regional novel from Quebec is called Terroir novel and is a literary tradition specific to the province.  The forest products industry ranks second in exports, with shipments valued at almost $11 billion. Like most industrialized countries, the economy of Quebec is based mainly on the services sector. It has a land area of 18,797.45 km . The Film Festival of the 3 Americas, Quebec City, the Festival of International Short Film, Saguenay, the World Film Festival and the Festival of New Cinema, Montreal, are other annual events surrounding the film industry in Quebec. Although primarily intended for the transport of goods through companies such as the Canadian National (CN) and the Canadian Pacific (CP), the Quebec railway network is also used by inter-city passengers via Via Rail Canada and Amtrak. Many literary works reproduce the daily lives of the past, following the social and cultural traditions of Quebec television series reproducing the old days such as the trilogy of Pierre Gauvreau (Le Temps d'une paix, Cormoran and Le Volcan tranquille), La Famille Plouffe, Les Belles Histoires des Pays-d'en-Haut, La Petite Patrie, Entre chien et loup, Les Filles de Caleb, Blanche, Au nom du père et du fils, Marguerite Volant, Nos Étés or Musée Éden, among others. There was also a need to compromise between the conflicting demands of the French-speaking Canadian subjects and those of newly arrived British subjects. The white admiral butterfly (Limenitis arthemis) won with 32% of the 230 660 votes against the spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata lengi), the ebony jewelwing damselfly (Calopteryx maculata), a species of bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and the six-spotted tiger beetle (Cicindela sexguttata sexguttata). , In 1939, the government of Quebec unilaterally ratified its coat of arms to reflect Quebec's political history: French rule (gold lily on blue background), British rule (lion on red background) and Canadian rule (maple leaves) and with Quebec's motto below "Je me souviens". The lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. The ecozone mixed forest covers 11.5% of the area of Quebec and is characteristic of the Laurentians, the Appalachians and the eastern lowlands forests. They won 12 of Canada's 29 medals at the most recent Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang (2018); they won 12 of the 27 Canadian medals in Sochi (2014); and 9 of the 26 Canadian medals in Vancouver (2010). The taiga covers about 20% of the total area of Quebec. This law has been the subject of periodic controversy since its inception. This result caused a split in the Quebec Liberal Party that led to the formation of the new Action démocratique (Democratic Action) party led by Mario Dumont and Jean Allaire.  French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France. The books and records of the National Assembly must also be kept in both languages.  William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill University in Montreal. Altogether, 17.5% of Canadians are bilingual in French and English. The flag in its present form with its 4 white "fleur-de-lis" lilies on a blue background with a white cross replaced the Union Jack on Quebec's Parliament Building on January 21, 1948. The government hopes to create a strong culture of innovation in Quebec for the next decades and to create a sustainable economy.  In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada. , The government of Quebec takes the majority of its revenue through a progressive income tax, a 9.975% sales tax and various other taxes (such as carbon, corporate and capital gains taxes), equalization payments from the federal government, transfer payments from other provinces and direct payments. The R&D expenditure in Quebec is higher than the average G7 and OECD countries.  A 2014 report by the Fraser Institute indicated that "Relative to its size, Quebec is the most indebted province in Canada by a wide margin".. The French language subsequently regained legal status in the Legislature. Because of the influence of both storm systems from the core of North America and the Atlantic Ocean, precipitation is abundant throughout the year, with most areas receiving more than 1,000 millimetres (39 in) of precipitation, including over 300 centimetres (120 in) of snow in many areas.  It employs about 50,000 people in 158 companies.  Their actions resulted in rebellions in both Lower and Upper Canada.  Other major sports include Canadian football with the Montreal Alouettes, soccer with the Montreal Impact, the Grand Prix du Canada Formula 1 racing with drivers such as Gilles Villeneuve and Jacques Villeneuve, and professional baseball with the former Montreal Expos. About 60 000 people currently working in computer software development.  The spending on research and development reached some 7.824 billion dollars in 2007, roughly the equivalent of 2.63% of Quebec's GDP. Its capital, Quebec city, is the oldest city in Canada.  The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 renamed Canada (part of New France) as the Province of Quebec. Quebec (/k(w)ɪˈbɛk/ (listen); French: Québec [kebɛk] (listen)) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. The aquatic environment is composed of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC area). The Association québécoise de l'industrie du disque, du spectacle et de la vidéo (ADISQ) was created in 1978 to promote the music industry in Quebec. Québec Venture Capital Highlights $473M was invested over 42 deals in Q4 in Québecâ61% more than the previous quarter ($293M) and â¦  From temperate zones to the northern territories of the Far North, the brightness varies with latitude, as well as the Northern Lights and midnight sun.  The Quartier Latin (English: Latin Quarter) of Montreal, and Vieux-Québec (English: Old Quebec) in Quebec City, are two hubs of activity for today's artists. Sports in Quebec constitutes an essential dimension of Quebec culture. Quebec has produced beer since the beginning of colonization especially with the emergence of spruce beer. The Conscription Crisis of 1917 did much to highlight the divisions between French and English-speaking Canadians in Canada. It would have been ironic if we visit the capital city and didn't visit the parliament building. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. The northern regions of Quebec have an arctic climate (Köppen ET), with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers.  One of the most recent is the discovery of the complex extrasolar planets system HR 8799. It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. The Société de développement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC) works to promote and fund individuals working in the cultural industry.  Southern and western Quebec, including most of the major population centres and areas south of 51oN, have a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with four distinct seasons having warm to occasionally hot and humid summers and often very cold and snowy winters. Lévesque and his party had run in the 1970 and 1973 Quebec elections under a platform of separating Quebec from the rest of Canada. This article is about the Canadian province. In that year, the Legislative Council was abolished and the Legislative Assembly was renamed the National Assembly. Percentages are calculated as a proportion of the total number of respondents (7,435,905) and may total more than 100 percent due to dual responses. The Moulin à paroles traces the great texts that have shaped the history of Quebec since its foundation in 1534 until the era of modernity. A number of governmental and non-government organizations support cultural activity in Quebec.  Quebec is one of North America's leading high-tech player. Various buildings reflect the architectural heritage that characterizes Quebec, such as religious buildings, city halls, houses of large estates, and other locations throughout the province. , The mining industry accounted for 6.3% of Quebec's GDP. Its capital is Quebec City, which is located in the southeastern portion of the province, along the St. Lawrence River. In 1977, the Quebec Parliament declared June 24 to be Quebec's National Holiday. It came at a time when no declaration of war had been issued by either country. "Place Names".  Olivier Daigle and Claude Carignan, astrophysicists from Université de Montréal have invented an astronomical camera approximately 500 times more powerful than those currently on the market. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay; to the north by Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay; to the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador; and to the south by the province of New Brunswick and the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York. The multimedia sector is also dominated by the province of Quebec. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. From Quebec's musical repertoire, the song A La Claire Fontaine was the anthem of the New France, Patriots and French Canadian, then replaced by O Canada. This time, it was rejected by a slim majority (50.6 percent NO to 49.4 percent YES). The fund owned 354,600 shares of the real estate investment trustâs stock after selling 19,400 shares during the period. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate (latitude and altitude), and the proximity to water.  March 1971, however, saw the "Century's Snowstorm" with more than 40 centimetres (16 in) in Montreal to 80 centimetres (31 in) in Mont Apica of snow within 24 hours in many regions of southern Quebec. , Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface. It has a population of 701 204, representing 8.8% of the total population of Québec. To secure the allegiance of the approximately 90,000 French-speaking Canadians to the British crown, first Governor James Murray and later Governor Guy Carleton promoted the need for change. From south to north, average temperatures range in summer between 25 and 5 °C (77 and 41 °F) and, in winter, between −10 and −25 °C (14 and −13 °F). In addition, 152,820 (2.0%) reported having more than one native language.. On November 15, 1976, Lévesque and the Parti Québécois won control of the provincial government for the first time.  Each became one of the first four provinces. The written forms of French place-names in Canada retain their diacritics such as accent marks over vowels in English text. The second largest deal was the $320M privatization of Centre-du-Québecâs NAPEC Inc. by a global investment firm. The Commission de la capitale nationale du Québec has prepared a program of guided walking tours of Québec City called Découvrir la capitale nationale (Discover Québecâs Capital). After the rebellions, Lord Durham was asked to undertake a study and prepare a report on the matter and to offer a solution for the British Parliament to assess. Allophones, people whose mother tongue is neither French nor English, made up 12.3 percent (961,700) of the population, according to the 2011 census, though a smaller figure – 554,400 (7.1 percent) – actually used these languages most often in the home. Among the theatre troupes are the Compagnie Jean-Duceppe, the Théâtre La Rubrique at the Pierrette-Gaudreault venue of the Institut of arts in Saguenay, the Théâtre Le Grenier, etc.
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