He worked for that master for about three years, until the slave uprising of 1791, which spread across the Plaine du Nord. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more.  The mob desecrated and disfigured his remains, which were abandoned on Government Square. Jean Jacques Dessalines , seine Ideale und sein Erbe und die Frauen, die ihn beeinflusst haben Der 20. Later he rose to become a commander in the revolt against France. The Haitian humanitarian organization Fondasyon Félicité (FF), established in 1999 by Bayyinah Bello, is named after Dessalines' spouse Marie-Claire Heureuse Félicité. He had served as Governor-General of Saint-Domingue since 30 November 1803. Dessalines gained a reputation for his "take no prisoners" policy, and for burning homes and entire villages to the ground. During the 11 March 1802 battle, Dessalines and his 1,300 men defended a small fort against 18,000 attackers. Dessalines was a grandfather of Florvil Hyppolite, who served as President of Haiti from 1889 to 1896. In a series of victories, Dessalines’ coalition of Black people and mulattos were successful in forcing the French to surrender and leave the island. Im Jahr 1986 errichtet man das Claire-Heureuse-Krankenhaus. In 1794, after the French declared an end to slavery, Toussaint Louverture switched allegiances to the French. On 4 December 1803, the French colonial army of Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered its last remaining territory to Dessalines' forces. , In the process, Dessalines became arguably the most successful military commander in the struggle against Napoleonic France. The French soldiers under Leclerc were accompanied by mulatto troops led by gens de couleur Alexandre Pétion and André Rigaud from Saint-Domingue. He was born a slave at La Grande Rivière du Nord, on the plantation of a certain Duelos. With victory secured and thus the brutal war concluded, Jean-Jacques Dessalines would promptly order the execution of all French people on the island. The former argument has been most compellingly defended by David Nicholls, whose seminal work From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Color and National Independence in Haiti remains essential reading for all serious students of Haitian history. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube.  Yet, after declaring himself Governor-for-Life in 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines was still willing to take his old master Dessalines into his house and gave him a job. Dessalines served as an officer in the French army, when the colony was fending off Spanish and British incursions. The remaining French forces meanwhile had fled to the Spanish side of the island and had holed themselves up in Santo Domingo. Thomas Madiou, "Histoire of Haiti", Henri Dechamps, t.3,( Port-au-Prince, 1989). Die Folgen der Revolution. His forces were strict in enforcing this, to the extent that … He directed the creation of a new constitution to establish that, as well as rules for how the colony would operate under freedom. Uhrzeiten im direkten Vergleich. Ce samedi 17 Octobre. Ces proclamations Oktober 1806). Taking the last name of the person who owned his mother at the time, Jean-Jacques Duclos was born into slavery on Cormier, a plantation near Grande-Riviere-du-Nord. wrote Leclerc to denounce Louverture’s conduct as "extraordinary".". Die Herrschaft und selten auch der Herrschaftsbereich werden entsprechend als Kaisertum bezeichnet. An influential advocate of Pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organization of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union in 1962. Als Dessalines die Nachricht erhielt, Napoléon Bonaparte habe sich im August 1804 zum Kaiser gekrönt, zögerte er nicht, es ihm (am 8. For other uses, see, Expulsion and killing of the French slave owning population. After the Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot, Dessalines defected from his long-time ally Louverture and briefly sided with Leclerc, Pétion, and Rigaud. He placed in these positions well-educated Haitians, who were disproportionately from the mulatto elite, as gens de couleur were most likely to have been educated. Dessalines followed, becoming a chief lieutenant to Toussaint Louverture and rising to the rank of brigadier general by 1799. Share some things about the Dessalines name. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press, 1995. Dessalines kept this name in freedom. (Dessalines 1804: 6) Vom neuen Kaiserreich Haiti sollte kein direkter Export der Revolution ausgehen – mit Einschränkungen.  Dessalines tried hard to keep the sugar industry and plantations running and producing without slavery. Handwerkskunst aus Europa. Der ViaMichelin-Stadtplan von Dessalines: Nutzen Sie die bewährten Karten von Michelin und … As Toussaint Louverture's principal lieutenant, he led many successful engagements, including the Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot. Finden Sie auf der Karte von Dessalines eine gesuchte Adresse, berechnen Sie die Route von oder nach Dessalines oder lassen Sie sich alle Sehenswürdigkeiten und Restaurants aus dem Guide Michelin in oder um Dessalines anzeigen. Die Ideologie des Nationalsozialismus wurde auf Basis des Gedankens aufgebaut, die deutsche arische Rasse sei allen anderen überlegen. On January 1, 1804, Dessalines declared the existence of an independent Haiti, and in 1805 a new constitution proclaimed that all Haitians were black, though more than half the generals who signed it were mulattos. For his administration, Dessalines needed literate and educated officials and managers. Ce geste exhumera le nom de Dessalines le fondateur de la nation, c’est de cette logique que les révolutionnaires de Praslin vont parler d’un crime inexpiable9.  He is regarded as one of the founding fathers of Haiti.. In the town of Moca, one of the places that fell to Christophe, 40 children were beheaded; altogether more than 600 perished or were taken away in captivity as spoils of war, according to the eyewitness Gaspar de Arredondo y Pichardo. Oberbefehlshabers The slave Jean-Jacques was bought by a free black man named Dessalines, who assigned his own surname to him. The French responded by dispatching an expeditionary force to restore French rule to the island, an army and ships led by General Charles Leclerc. Popular representations of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, a Haitian Revolutionary general and Haiti’s first head of state, have shaped his legacy for various political, creative, and ritualistic purposes. It was then that Dessalines met the rising military commander Toussaint Bréda (later known as Toussaint Louverture), a mature man also born into slavery, who was fighting with Spanish forces on Hispaniola. Cette « Guerre des coute… The identity of Jean-Jacques' parents, as well as his region of ancestral origin in Africa, are not known, but most slaves trafficked to Haiti came from west and central West Africa. On 22 May 1802, after Dessalines "learned that Louverture had failed to instruct a local rebel leader to lay down his arms per the recent ceasefire agreement, he immediately Jean-Jacques Dessalines (né le 20 septembre 1758 à Grande-Rivière-du-Nord assassiné le 17 octobre 1806 à Pont-Rouge) est un homme militaire et dirigeant haïtien, ayant combattu sous la Révolution française (1789-1804) puis lors de la Révolution haïtienne (1791-1804), en tant que lieutenant-général au service de Georges Biassou puis de Toussaint Louverture. On 1 January 1804, from the city of Gonaïves, Dessalines officially declared the former colony's independence and renamed it "Ayiti" after the indigenous Taíno name. Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. The armed Haitian juggernaut advanced sweeping everything in its path. Weiters benutzten sie für ihre Ideologie die Tradition des europäischen Antisemitismus, den modernen Antisemitismus, der in der 2. A monument at the northern entrance of the Haitian capital marks the place where the Emperor was killed. After the defeat of French royalists during the Haitian Revolution, he ordered the killing of all royalists to ensure that Saint-Domingue would be a nation. Declaring Haiti an independent nation in 1804, Dessalines was chosen by a council of generals to assume the office of governor-general. To motivate his troops at the start of the battle, he waved a lit torch near an open powder keg and declared that he would blow the fort up should the French breakthrough. So war Dessalines zugleich der Begründer … Author of the five-part Éléments d'idéologie (Idéologie, 1801; Grammaire générale, 1803; Logique, 1805; Traité sur la volonté, 1815), he affirmed in that work his psychological materialism. The national anthem of Haiti, "La Dessalinienne", written in 1903, is named in his honour. Born into slavery and having worked under white masters for 30 years, as well as having seen many atrocities by all peoples, Dessalines did not trust the white French people.  Leclerc died of yellow fever, which also took many French troops. He was sold later to a black planter named Dessalines. Innenpolitisch sind die Folgen der Haitianischen Revolution eher bescheiden. Pétion and Rigaud, both sons of the wealthy with white fathers, had opposed Louverture's leadership. Dossier No 8 créée par les Marines US pour maintenir l’« ordre ». So war Dessalines zugleich der Begründer … The exact circumstances of his death are uncertain. Der Mord führte zu erbitterten Auseinandersetzungen zwischen der kreolischen und der afrikanischen Bevölkerung, so dass Haiti im Bürgerkrieg in eine nördliche Hälfte unter dem Schwarzafrikaner Henri Christophe und eine südliche Hälfte unter dem Mulatten Pétion zerfiel. believe these men were soldiers of Dessalines. Yet another account recalls a brutal attack on him by his men. Log In He worked on Duclos's plantation until he was about 30 years old.  Nachdem Louverture durch eine französische List in Gefangenschaft geraten war, rief General Dessalines 1804 die Unabhängigkeit aus und erklärte sich selbst am 8. From then on he was called Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Dessalines (frz. However, by the beginning of the 20th century, Dessalines began to be reassessed as an icon of Haitian nationalism. He also named himself governor-for-life, while still swearing his loyalty to France. Dessalines, the leader of the Revolution after Toussaint's capture on 7 June 1802, commanded the rebel forces against a French army weakened by a yellow fever epidemic. Watch Queue Queue politische Theorie, in der Ideen (2) der Erreichung politischer und wirtschaftlicher Ziele dienen (besonders in totalitären … In 1804, the city of Marchand was renamed to Dessalines in his honour. This rebellion was the first action of what would become the Haitian Revolution. The brutal tactics of Leclerc's successor, Rochambeau, helped to unify rebel forces against the French. The second was the father of Maréchal de Camp Monsieur Dessalines, created 1st Baron de Joseph Dessalines in 1816, chamberlain to Prince Jacques-Victor Henry, the Prince Royal of Haiti, and major of the Grenadiers de la Garde, who received the degree of Knight of the Order of St. Henry on 28 October 1815. L’idéologie anticoloniale de Dessalines incorpore de façon syncrétique des traces d’interprétations africaines du monde spirituel et de la nature. In declaring Haiti an independent country, Dessalines also abolished slavery in the new country. Die deutsche Titelbezeichnung Kaiser (weiblich Kaiserin) leitet sich vom Namen des römischen Politikers Gaius Iulius Caesar ab, der am Ende der römischen Republik als De-facto-Staatsoberhaupt fungierte. It says he was shot at twice and hit once. He was killed by the revolutionaries at Cap-Henri on 10 October 1820. In Dessalines leben 165.424 Einwohner.  He fought for the French Republic against both the Spanish and British. I'm a specialist in the long 19th century in Haiti and continental France, with interdisciplinary engagement in Januar 1804 (dem Tag der Proklamierung der Unabhängigkeit) zum Generalgouverneur Haitis auf Lebenszeit gewählt. Dessalines was assassinated north of the capital city, Port-au-Prince, at Larnage (now known as Pont-Rouge), on 17 October 1806, on his way to fight the rebels. The French force numbered perhaps 500 and the local colonial militia had no more than 1000 men. Dessalines and Christophe went after them at the head of 20,000 men. Dessalines was a grand-uncle of Nissage Saget, who served as President of Haiti from 1870 to 1874, leader of Haitian Revolution and first ruler of independent Haiti (1758-1806), "Jacques I" redirects here. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. The rebellious slaves were able to restore most of Saint-Domingue to France, with Louverture in control and finally appointed by the French as governor-general of the colony. Er gewann die Gunst des franz. These men wanted above all to defeat slavery. As had Toussaint Louverture, Dessalines demanded that all blacks work either as soldiers to defend the nation or as labourers on the plantations to raise crops and help sustain the nation. He joined the insurgents in 1791. Oktober 1804) gleichzutun. While most factions have presented Dessalines as either completely demonic or virtuously heroic, only Haiti’s religion of Vodou recognizes and actually celebrates his many Some historians[who?] For the remainder of the 19th century, Dessalines was generally reviled by generations of Haitians for his autocratic ways. 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199730414/obo-9780199730414-0253.xml, "Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the Atlantic System: A Reappraisal", The Monroe doctrine in its relation to the republic of Haiti, Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau, Philibert François Rouxel de Blanchelande, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean-Jacques_Dessalines&oldid=1017131978, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 April 2021, at 00:48. He ordered the 1804 Haiti massacre of French settlers in Haiti, resulting in the deaths of between 3,000 and 5,000 people, but declared that the Polish foreign mercenaries who defected from the French Legion could remain in the new country. segu Geschichte | Lernplattform für Offenen Geschichtsunterricht | Modul: Nationalsozialismus: NS-Ideologie - Aus einem Geschichtsbuch | Antisemitismus He believed that sensibility (of which the fundamental forms are to feel, to remember, to judge, to desire) defines our own existence as well as that of the external world. Napoleon was committed to restoring slavery in Saint-Domingue.. Dessalines enforced a harsh regimen of plantation labor, described by the historian Michel-Rolph Trouillot as caporalisme agraire (agrarian militarism). Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 25. Dessalines commanded many successful engagements, including the captures of Jacmel, Petit-Goâve, Miragoâne and Anse-à-Veau. He defeated a French army at the Battle of Vertières in 1803. Um 12:00 Uhr Mittags in Deutschland ist es in Dessalines erst 6:00 Uhr. Dessalines was a great-grandfather of Cincinnatus Leconte, who served as President of Haiti from 1911 to 1912..  There was a lot of resistance to providing him with a proper burial, but Défilée (Dédée Bazile), a black woman from a humble background, took the mutilated body of the Emperor and buried it. Louverture wanted Saint-Domingue to have more autonomy. (deutsch Jakob I.) jemandem seine Ideologie aufzuzwingen versuchen. The death toll was estimated to be between 3,000 and 5,000 people of all ages and sexes.. When it became clear that the French intended to re-establish slavery on Saint-Domingue, as they had on Guadeloupe, Dessalines and Pétion switched sides again in October 1802, to oppose the French. We know little about his birth and early life. Le mécontentement provoqué par cette loi fut réprimé par la gendarmerie haïtienne – une force armée . There is a bridge called Pont Visé Bridge on this road which crosses the Artibonite River, whose former overflows, had invaded the lands of this habitation. Neighboring sections The Visé habitation, located in the town of Dessalines, on the way to Saint-Marc. Dessalines' assassination did not solve the tensions within the Haitian government, as his removal created a power vacuum that led to a civil war and a temporary partition of Haiti between Pétion and Christophe.  He was crowned Emperor Jacques I in a coronation ceremony on 6 October in the city of Le Cap. Eine zeitgenössische Tageszeitung berichtete folgendermaßen davon: Die haitianische Nationalhymne La Dessalinienne erinnert an ihn, ebenso tragen eine Stadt und ein Arrondissement den Namen Dessalines. Some historians claim that he was actually killed at Pétion's house at Rue l'Enterrement, after a meeting to negotiate the power and the future of the young nation. Jan. Anno 1807. https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean-Jacques_Dessalines&oldid=208066737, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. Im Verlauf der Haitianischen Revolution, einer Serie von Ereignissen gegen Ende des 18. Kaiser des Ersten Kaiserreichs in Haiti. Initially regarded as governor-general, Dessalines was later named Emperor of Haiti as Jacques I (1804–1806) by generals of the Haitian Revolution Army and ruled in that capacity until being assassinated in 1806. Susanne Dessaive kuratiert DESSAIVE Selected Interior Design and Accessories aus kleinen Manufakturen. "Chapter XVI of. Im Verlauf der Haitianischen Revolution , einer Serie von Ereignissen gegen Ende des 18. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. Dessalines laid on a commemorative feast attended by the leading officers, military and civil, of the infant state. Januar 2021 um 19:29 Uhr bearbeitet. Dessalines became a lieutenant in Papillon's army and followed him to Santo Domingo, where he enlisted to serve Spain's military forces against the French colony of Saint-Domingue. His forces were strict in enforcing this, to the extent that some blacks felt as if they were again enslaved. Dessalines: History in the Theater Dessalines remains a somewhat enigmatic figure in history. From, W. M. Wells Brown, "The Rising Son". Bob Corbet, "A Brief History of Dessalines". The Spanish side was a colony of fewer than 175,000 souls.  The defenders inflicted heavy casualties on the attacking army, but after a 20-day siege they were forced to abandon the fort due to a shortage of food and munitions. In 1801, Dessalines quickly ended an insurrection in the north led by Louverture's own nephew, General Moyse. Known for naming Haiti, Jean-Jacques Dessalines was a military leader serving under the leader of the 1791 Haitian Revolution, Toussaint L’Ouverture. Dessalines enforced a harsh regimen of plantation labor, described by the historian Michel-Rolph Trouillot as caporalisme agraire (agrarian militarism). This officially ended the only slave rebellion in world history which successfully resulted in establishing an independent nation. As had Toussaint Louverture, Dessalines demanded that all blacks work either as soldiers to defend the nation or as labourers on the plantations to raise crops and help sustain the nation. Dessalines war ein ehemaliger Sklave der französischen Kolonie Saint-Domingue, dem heutigen Haiti. Watch Queue Queue. Dessalines became increasingly embittered toward both the whites and gens de couleur libres (the mixed-race residents of Saint-Domingue) during the years of fighting the revolution against residents and foreign troops: French, British and Spanish. Disaffected members of Dessalines' administration, including Alexandre Pétion and Henri Christophe, began a conspiracy to overthrow the Emperor. Une guerre civile éclate en juin 1799. After the declaration of independence, Dessalines named himself Governor-General-for-life of Haiti and served in that role until 22 September 1804, when he was proclaimed later Emperor of Haiti by the Generals of the Haitian Revolution Army. Jean-Jacques Dessalines (* 20. This video is unavailable. Sie suchen eine Karte oder den Stadtplan von Dessalines und Umgebung? On 18 November 1803, black and mulatto forces under Dessalines and Pétion attacked the fort of Vertières, held by Rochambeau, near Cap-Français in the north. Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Haitian Creole: Jan-Jak Desalin; French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃ ʒak dɛsalin]; 20 September 1758 – 17 October 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1805 constitution.  Another report says he was ambushed and killed at first fire.. Ils vont leur nommer ‘’patriotes populaires’’ en réaction à l’action poser par Boyer. Am 17. September ist der Geburtstag von Haitis Gründungsvater Jean Jacques Dessalines (geboren am 20. Studies Romance Studies, Haptics, and Proprioception. September 1758, ermordet am 17. Toussaint Louverture's forces had defeated them three years earlier. Oktober 1804) gleichzutun. Surname information is crowd-sourced; the Geni community would be grateful if you helped update this page with information about the Dessalines surname. In 1791, along with thousands of other enslaved persons, Jean-Jacques Dessalines joined the slave rebellion of the northern plains led by Jean François Papillon and Georges Biassou. Louverture and Dessalines fought against the invading French forces, with Dessalines defeating them at the battle for which he is most famous, Crête-à-Pierrot. Nach seinem gewaltsamen Tod 1806 machte sein Nachfolger Henri Christophe Milot zur Hauptstadt. On 20 May 1805, his government released the Imperial Constitution, naming Jean-Jacques Dessalines emperor for life with the right to name his successor. Augsburgische Ordinari Postzeitung, Nro. Thus, Haiti became the first country in the Americas to permanently abolish slavery. The following year a coalition of black and mulatto officers assassinated Dessalines and founded two independent states. They had tried to establish separate independence in the South of Saint-Domingue, an area where wealthy gens de couleur were concentrated in plantations.