Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.  Turkey does not recognise conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service. Several ecumenical councils of the early Church were held in cities located in present-day Turkey including the First Council of Nicaea (Iznik) in 325, the First Council of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon (Kadıköy) in 451. The Administrative Code bears similarities with its French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian counterpart. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km². " Now greatly increased in size, the Diyanet promotes a certain type of conservative (Hanafi Sunni) Islam inside Turkey, issuing fetva that disapprove of activities such as "feeding dogs at home, celebrating the western New Year, lotteries, and tattoos" , In a mid-2010s poll, 2.9% of Turkish respondents identified as atheists.  In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognised only by Turkey, was established. The independence and organisation of the courts, the security of the tenure of judges and public prosecutors, the profession of judges and prosecutors, the supervision of judges and public prosecutors, the military courts and their organisation, and the powers and duties of the high courts are regulated by the Turkish Constitution. , Christianity has a long history in present-day Turkey, which is the birthplace of numerous Christian apostles and saints, such as Paul of Tarsus, Timothy, Nicholas of Myra, Polycarp of Smyrna and many others. Appendix D: Religious Freedom Commitments and Obligations From Regional Bodies; Appendix E: Training at the Foreign Service Institute Related to the International Religious Freedom Act - 2015; Appendix F: Department of Homeland Security and the International Religious Freedom Act - 2015; Appendix G: Overview of U.S. Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (il or vilayet) for administrative purposes. [a] After the Ottomans and the other Central Powers lost the war, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states.  The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey.  The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President.  It is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF, and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC, and G20. Tourism in Turkey has increased almost every year in the 21st century, and is an important part of the economy. During its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has integrated different cultural traditions. , Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since the Korean War, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Yugoslavia and the Horn of Africa. 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The Turkish Armed Forces consist of the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. Over the past decades access to drinking water has become almost universal and access to adequate sanitation has also increased substantially. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Turkey is bordered on its northwest by Greece and Bulgaria; north by the Black Sea; northeast by Georgia; east by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran; southeast by Iraq; south by Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; and west by the Aegean Sea. 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Turkish cuisine was well established by the mid-1400s, the beginning of the Ottoman Empire's six hundred-year reign. Elle est très influente dans l’immigration, en particulier en Allemagne autour de l’Union des centres islamiques. Arménie Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. La construction de salle de prières (mescit) au sein des habitations privées ou des entreprises est aujourd'hui encouragé par le gouvernement officiellement au nom de la « liberté de culte » que réclame l'UE dans la perspective d'une adhésion. , In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy.  In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music. After the Tanzimat (Reformation) period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernised and plays were performed on European-style stages, with actors wearing European costumes.  As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, several other airlines operate in the country.  After the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the then finance minister, Kemal Derviş, inflation dropped to single-digit figures for the first time in decades (8% in 2005), investor confidence and foreign investment soared, and unemployment fell to 10% in 2005. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability.  Following the Arab Spring in December 2010, the choices made by the AKP government for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries have led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbour Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and Egypt after the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi.  In 2020 the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development offered to support a just transition away from coal.. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.  In 2012 Turkey became a dialogue partner of the SCO, and in 2013 became a member of the ACD. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law.  In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homeland into Persia, which became the administrative core of the Great Seljuk Empire, after its foundation by Tughril. L'armée et les milieux laïques s'inquiètent de cette prolifération de mosquées non-controlées par l'État. , The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. L'autre Turquie : Le mouvement aléviste et ses territoires L’islam sunnite After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.. Representing Europe as the winner of the 2012–13 CEV Women's Champions League, Vakıfbank also became the world champion by winning the 2013 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (UMET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI).  Southeastern Turkey is located within the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia.  Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 people have died, most of whom were Turkish Kurds.  Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia.  Today, EU membership is considered as a state policy and a strategic target by Turkey. , The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. , The Montreux Convention (1936) restored Turkey's control over the Turkish Straits, including the right to militarise the coastlines of the Dardanelles and Bosporus straits and the Sea of Marmara, and to block maritime traffic in wartime.. , Renowned domestic animals from Ankara, the capital of Turkey, include the Angora cat, Angora rabbit and Angora goat; and from Van Province the Van cat. However, in 1983, Prime Minister Turgut Özal initiated a series of reforms designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model. , Ottoman cuisine contains elements of Turkish, Byzantine, Balkan, Armenian, Kurdish, Arab and Persian cuisines.  Turkey maintains a force of 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus since 1974. The undersea pipeline, Turkish Stream, with an annual capacity around 63 billion cubic metres (2,200 billion cubic feet), will allow Turkey to resell Russian gas to Europe. , Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933 and before most countries, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. , In 2017 the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index rated Turkey at 4.88 (on a 0–10 scale), classifying Turkey as a hybrid regime.  As a reaction to the failed coup d'état, the government carried out mass purges. Les réformes kémalistes ont accentué ce caractère laïc de … Between 1959 and 2011 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 2400 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations on issues such as Kurdish rights, women's rights, LGBT rights, and media freedom. By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1,400 live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food.  The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup and UEFA Euro 2008..  Between 1960 and the end of the 20th century, the prominent leaders in Turkish politics who achieved multiple election victories were Süleyman Demirel, Bülent Ecevit and Turgut Özal.  The leading architects of this movement were Vedat Tek (1873–1942), Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870–1927), Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888–1982) and Giulio Mongeri (1873–1953). Refugee Policy - 2015  Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. The head painter, and much more often the scribe of the text, were indeed named and depicted in some of the manuscripts.  TAEK is the official nuclear energy institution of Turkey.  Turkey's support for Northern Cyprus in the Cyprus dispute complicates Turkey's relations with the EU and remains a major stumbling block to the country's EU accession bid. The history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of Asia minor. [original research?] Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet. However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition. , By 18 September 1922 the Greek, Armenian and French armies had been expelled, and the Turkish Provisional Government in Ankara, which had declared itself the legitimate government of the country on 23 April 1920, started to formalise the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system. 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Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Turkic, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today.  In its resolution "The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey" on 22 June 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe warned that "recent developments in Turkey pertaining to freedom of the media and of expression, erosion of the rule of law and the human rights violations in relation to anti-terrorism security operations in south-east Turkey have (...) raised serious questions about the functioning of its democratic institutions.". The reforms aimed to transform the old religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman constitutional monarchy into a Turkish nation state that would be governed as a parliamentary republic under a secular constitution. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools..  In 2020, Turkey openly intervened in Libya at the request of the GNA.  On 15 July 2016, an unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government. Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, MKE, among others. Roderic.  Public-sector funding covers approximately 75.2% of health expenditures. La laïcité en Turquie : les religions sous le contrôle de l'État La laïcité s'inscrit dans des contextes différents. Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.  Turkish municipalities have local legislative bodies (belediye meclisi) for decision-making on municipal issues. The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.  Non-Kurdish minorities are believed to make up an estimated 7–12 percent of the population.  The initial reason given by the PKK for this was the oppression of Kurds in Turkey. - Les Süleymanci : à l’origine un réseau de cours coraniques clandestines dans les années 1950. - Turquie, Iran et Asie centrale, XIXe-XXe siècles.  In the 21st century threats to biodiversity include desertification due to climate change in Turkey.  Freedom House lists Turkey's media as not free. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Another famous 18th-century master by the name of Hatip Mehmed Efendi (died 1773) is accredited with developing motifs and perhaps early floral designs, although evidence from India appears to contradict some of these reports. [needs update], TÜBİTAK is the leading agency for developing science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. , The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education. Les mouvements islamiques turcs à Paris Depuis vendredi dans la nuit, les médias ne parlent plus que de la tentative de coup d'État avorté en Turquie.  In 2018, Freedom House rated Turkey at 32 (on a 0–100 scale) as Not Free. Or, dans les années 2000, la Turquie est majoritairement acquise à l’AKP quelle que soit la taille des villes. The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Following the publication of Ünver's book subsequent studies were published, including a 1978 study by a historian named Bahaettin Ögel about the Central Asian origins of Turkish cuisine. The origin of Turkish theatre dates back to ancient pagan rituals and oral legends. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Dans sa majorité, il est relativement puritain, nationaliste et conservateur, mais peu tenté par l’islamisme. May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.. Saint Peter founded one of the first churches in Antioch (Antakya), the location of which is regarded by tradition as the spot where he first preached the Gospel, and where the followers of Jesus were called Christians for the first time. Following the arrest and imprisonment of Abdullah Öcalan in 1999, the PKK modified its demands into equal rights for ethnic Kurds and provincial autonomy within Turkey. The latest of those big earthquakes was the 1999 İzmit earthquake. The region is home to Eurasian wildlife such as the Eurasian sparrowhawk, golden eagle, eastern imperial eagle, lesser spotted eagle, Caucasian black grouse, red-fronted serin, and wallcreeper. It became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. , Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the system of continental Europe. , The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the Pontic Mountains in northern Turkey, while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range.  The Eurasian lynx and the European wildcat are other felid species which are currently found in the forests of Turkey.  The Association of Atheism (Ateizm Derneği), the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans or Middle East, was founded in 2014. The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from 17.5% (three million followers) in a population of 16 million to 2.5% percent in the early 20th century.  Lack of additional fiscal reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.  Turkey has the fifth-highest direct utilisation and capacity of geothermal power in the world. Certains musulmans sunnites adhèrent à des confréries dont l’existence est semi-officielle :  Two of the five major episcopal sees of the Pentarchy (Constantinople and Antioch) instituted by Justinian the Great in 531 AD were located in present-day Turkey during the Byzantine period.. , Before the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the estimated number of Arabs in Turkey varied from 1 million to more than 2 million. Renowned Turkish journalists who were murdered for their opinions include Abdi İpekçi (1929–1979, editor-in-chief of Milliyet); Çetin Emeç (1935–1990, chief columnist and coordinator of Hürriyet); Uğur Mumcu (1942–1993, columnist and investigative journalist of Cumhuriyet); and Hrant Dink (1954–2007, founder and editor-in-chief of Agos). , In 2016 the Skills Matter survey conducted by OECD found the levels of numeracy and literacy in the adult population of Turkey at rank 30 of the 33 OECD countries surveyed.  In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2020. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others. 1La Turquie est le seul État peuplé majoritairement de musulmans dans lequel l’islam n’est pas religion d’État et où la laïcité est inscrite, depuis 1937, dans la Constitution.Nombreux sont les observateurs qui estiment qu’elle pourrait à ce titre servir de modèle de démocratie séculière aux autres États islamiques . La Turquie fait l'expérience, depuis 1924, d'une laïcité dans le contexte d'un pays de culture essentiellement musulmane sunnite.  Turkey's gross external debt reached $453.2 billion at the end of December 2017. Today there are numerous private theatres in the country, together with those which are subsidised by the government, such as the Turkish State Theatres. The men's national basketball team won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship and at the EuroBasket 2001, which were both hosted by Turkey; and is one of the most successful at the Mediterranean Games. BILSAT-1 and RASAT are the scientific Earth observation satellites operated by the TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute. Intermittent supply, which was common in many cities, has become less frequent. Par ses liens avec le pouvoir, il fait figure de religion officielle. , Academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to 20 million, while the Alevi-Bektaşi Federation states that there are around 25 million. It forms the border between Turkey and its neighbours Greece and Bulgaria. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. The text of this manuscript was rendered in a delicate cut paper découpage calligraphy by Mehmed bin Gazanfer and completed in 1540, and features many marbled and decorative paper borders. Even further east, there was an extension of the Habsburg-Ottoman conflict, in that the Ottomans also had to send soldiers to their farthest and easternmost vassal and territory, the Aceh Sultanate in Southeast Asia, to defend it from European colonizers as well as the Latino invaders who had crossed from Latin America and had Christianized the formerly Muslim-dominated Philippines. On estime qu'environ 80-85 % des musulmans sont sunnites, et 15-20 %3 sont chiites.  The majority of the TV audiences are shared among public broadcaster TRT and the network-style channels such as Kanal D, Show TV, ATV and Star TV. and projecting this "Turkish Islam" abroad. Another Turkish basketball club, Anadolu Efes S.K. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament.  11.97 percent of the population speaks the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish as their mother tongue.  In recent years, Turkey has assisted Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq and the Somali Armed Forces with security and training. La laïcité turque date des origines de la République fondée par Mustafa Kemal dit « Atatürk » (« le père des turcs ») et a été imposée manu militari par la révolution culturelle kémaliste. , Amnesty International stated that it had gathered evidence of war crimes and other violations committed by Turkish and Turkey-backed Syrian forces who are said to "have displayed a shameful disregard for civilian life, carrying out serious violations and war crimes, including summary killings and unlawful attacks that have killed and injured civilians". Son influence s’étend aussi à l’Asie centrale. However, in 1993, Turkey sealed its land border with Armenia in a gesture of support to Azerbaijan (a Turkic state in the Caucasus region) during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War, and it remains closed..
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